I have been assigned to make a literature review on evacuation planning. Could you please suggest some papers that I can use for the review?

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    $\begingroup$ Hi and welcome, Stefani, can you give a little bit more background? Exact and/or heuristic approaches, what papers do you already have, which keywords did you search for, etc. Thanks! $\endgroup$ Commented Nov 11, 2019 at 14:47

4 Answers 4


A buzzword that comes to my mind are Flows over time and especially Earliest Arrival Flows. Martin Skutella and students of his have worked out a bit of theory for that, see e.g. An introduction to Network Flows over time, Earliest Arrival Flows with multiple sources, Earliest Arrival Flows with multiple sinks.


In reverse chronological order, here are some papers which use OR (or OR-related) techniques to solve problems in evacuation planning:

Goerigk, Marc et al. "Ranking robustness and its application to evacuation planning." European Journal of Operational Research 264.3 (2018): 837-846.

Swamy, Rahul et al. "Hurricane evacuation planning using public transportation." Socio-Economic Planning Sciences 59 (2017): 43-55.

Pillac, Victor et al. "A conflict-based path-generation heuristic for evacuation planning." Transportation Research Part B 83 (2016): 136-150.

Saadatseresht, Mohammad et al. "Evacuation planning using multiobjective evolutionary optimization approach." European Journal of Operational Research 198.1 (2009): 305-314.

Sherali, Hanif et al. "A location-allocation model and algorithm for evacuation planning under hurricane/flood conditions." Transportation Research Part B 25.6 (1991): 439-452.

You can find many related articles through the literature review sections of these papers. Also, you may find the following reviews helpful.

Galindo, Gina and Rajan Batta. "Review of recent developments in OR/MS research in disaster operations management." European Journal of Operational Research 230.2 (2013): 201-211.

Altay, Nezih and Walter Green. "OR/MS research in disaster operations management." European Journal of Operational Research 175.1 (2006): 475-493.


Goerigk et al. (2014) may be a good start to your literature search. It uses mixed-integer programming to propose a genetic algorithm that can be used for urban evacuation planning. Examples of scenarios are provided at the end.

A bonus of this paper is that it already contains an extensive literature review in section 1.2.


[1] Goerigk, M., Deghdak, K., Heßler, P. (2014). A comprehensive evacuation planning model and genetic solution algorithm. Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review. 71:82-97.


Excluding papers listed in other answers...

Great starting points would be surveys on general evacuation and disaster operations management such as Hamacher & Tjandra (2002) and Dhamala (2014) for time-expanded network flow models. Wright (2006) gives a homeland security-themed survey.

General Evacuation:
Multiobjective evolutionary algorithm with GIS-integration: Saadatsersht et al. (2019).

Noncombatant Evacuation:
Discrete Event Simulation (DES): Kuchell (2013); Scheer (2011); Olsen (2011), Sumner and Zahn (1996).

References (alphabetical order by last name of first author)

[1] T.N. Dhamala. 2014. A survey of models and algorithms for discrete evacuation planning network problems. Journal of Industrial and Management Optimization, 11(1):265–289.

[2] H.W. Hamacher and S.A. Tjandra. 2002. Mathematical modelling of evacuation problems: a state of the art. In M. Schrekenberg and S.D. Sharma, editors, Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics, pages 227–266. Springer, Berlin, Germany.

[3] D. Kuchell. 2013. Analyzing noncombatant evacuation operations using discrete event simulation, Proceedings of the 2013 Winter Simulation Conference, pages 2751–2761. R. Pasupathy, S.H. Kim, A. Tolk, R. Hill, and M.E. Kuhl, eds.

[4] C.M. Olsen. 2011. Simulation study of evacuation control center operations analysis, Master’s thesis, Air Force Institute of Technology.

[5] M. Saadatseresht, A. Mansourian, and M. Taleai. 2009. Evacuation planning using multiobjective evolutionary optimization approach, European Journal of Operational Research, 198(1):305–314.

[6] M.A. Scheer. 2011. Noncombatant evacuation operations in EUCOM, Master’s thesis, Air Force Institute of Technology.

[7] J.E. Sumner and E.A. Zahn. 1996. A simulation of the evacuation of American citizens with an object-oriented animated model. Proceedings of the 1996 Winter Simulation Conference, pages 967–974. J.M Charnes, D.J.Morrice, D.T. Brunner, and J.J. Swain, eds.

[8] P.D. Wright, M.J. Liberatore, and R.L. Nydick. 2006. A Survey of Operations Research Models and Applications in Homeland Security. INFORMS Journal on Applied Analytics, 36(6):514–529.


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