# Questions tagged [mixed-integer-programming]

For questions about mathematical optimization problems involving both continuous and binary or general integer variables.

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### In an integer program, how I can force a binary variable to equal 1 if some condition holds?

Suppose we have a binary or continuous variable $x$, a binary variable $y$, and a constant $b$, and we want to enforce a relationship like If $x \gtreqless b$, then $y = 1$. How can we write this ...
664 views

### In an integer program, how can I “activate” a constraint only if a decision variable has a certain value?

Suppose we have the constraint $$a_1x_1 + \cdots + a_nx_n \gtreqless b,$$ where $a_i$ and $b$ are constants and $x_i$ are decision variables. Suppose also that we want the constraint to hold if $y=1$ (...
794 views

### What are good reference books for introduction to operations research?

The reference books should cover the wide range of problem-solving techniques and methods.
3k views

### When to use indicator constraints versus big-M approaches in solving (mixed-)integer programs

Various optimization modeling languages and solvers allow for both indicator constraints (see for example here, here and here) and traditional binary variable and big-M approaches can be used to model ...
1k views

### Why is it important to choose big-M carefully and what are the consequences of doing it badly?

The question here discusses the two different use of "big-M method", where one of them is the big-M in logical constraints and linearization in (mixed-)integer programming problems (that's what I'm ...
685 views

### Single reference for Mixed Integer Programming formulations to linearize, handle logical constraints and disjunctive constraints, do Big M, etc?

Is there a single crisp and accessible reference which covers how to generate Mixed Integer Programming formulations to linearize products, handle logical constraints and disjunctive constraints, do ...
2k views

### How does a warm start work in LP/MIP?

Can someone explain how warm starts/ MIP starts work? How do solvers like CPLEX/GUROBI use warm start with the Simplex algorithm? I am interested in understanding how the entire warm start ...
2k views

### How to linearize min function as a constraint?

I'm trying to solve an optimization problem including following constraint, and I need to linearize it in a maximization nonlinear programming model. Please help me to reformulate it with mixed ...
1k views

### Optimization Problem Libraries

Can someone please make a list of optimization problem libraries so that the community can add to and refine it? I know a few off the top of my head.
819 views

### State-of-the-art algorithms for solving linear programs

Průša and Werner (2019) show that the general linear programming problem reduces in nearly linear time to the LP relaxations of many classical NP-hard problems (assuming sparse encoding of instances)....
879 views

### Modeling floor function exactly

Suppose we want to enforce a constraint $$y=\lfloor{x}\rfloor$$ where $x$ is some continuous variable. One option is to use $$x-1\leq{y}\leq{x},\quad y\in\mathbb{Z},$$ which fails on the edge case ...
544 views

### What are the tradeoffs between “exact” and Reinforcement Learning methods for solving optimization problems

Exact methods, e.g., models that utilize an MIP approach with a specified objective and constraints, have advantages like the following: Using off the shelf solvers Optimality gap provability ...
2k views

### How to compare two different formulations of a problem?

I somewhat know how to compare two MILP formulations of a problem that both use the same set of decision variables (as in the classical MTZ vs DFJ formulations of the TSP). I was wondering how two ...
391 views

### Feeding known lower bounds to solvers

Given an optimization problem that aims at minimizing some objective function, a lower bound that is valid for all optimal solutions, and your solver of choice: For what theoretical and/or practical (...
544 views

### Estimation of the size of Branch-and-Bound trees using ML

A short background: A paper  published in 2006 intends to show that the time needed to solve mixed-integer programming problems by branch and bound can be roughly predicted early in the solution ...
523 views

### Using CPLEX “solution pool” to count feasible points

Some problems call for a count of the number of integer "lattice" points contained in a feasible region (rather than for locating the minimum or maximum objective function value in that region). See ...
641 views

### How to use warm start to solve MIPs efficiently?

I'm working on the scheduling model which takes a long time to solve to optimality (even for a small instance), therefore I would like to use a warm start (MIP start) to solve the problem. I'm using ...
2k views

### Algorithms vs LP or MIP

Is there a way of writing an algorithm with if-, while-statements to find an optimal solution without using linear-programming (LP)/MIP? If so, what would the benefits be against the LP/MIP? Is it ...
1k views

### Is there a heuristic approach to the MILP problem?

I have the following optimization problem which is a MILP. I can solve it with a MILP solver. \begin{align}\min_t&\quad t\\\text{s.t.}&\quad d_{c}-t\le \sum_{n=1}^{N} B_{n,c}x_{n}\le d_{c}+t,...
83 views

### Conditional constraint formulation [duplicate]

How can I create constraints to make sure $x=1$ if $k\geq 0$ and $x=0$ if $k<0$, where $x\in \{0,1\}$ and $k\in \mathbb{R}$? Here is my attempt: \begin{equation}\label{cons:1} \begin{aligned} ...
415 views

### Reference for column generation applications

When talking about column generation algorithms, the main example is the cutting stock problem. I'm aware that variations of vehicle routing problem (VRP) can be solved using a column generation ...
379 views

### Good resources for solving techniques (Metaheuristics, MILP, CP etc)

I want some resources (tutorials, online courses, lecture notes, articles, books, etc.) to learn the different techniques to solve OR problems (metaheuristics, CP, MILP, etc). It would be better if ...
590 views

### Stochastic programming MIP solvers

I am aware that Benders Decomposition is readily available in CPLEX and in SCIP; but are there any (free) solvers that provide off the shelf stochastic programming MIP algorithms or a nice to work ...
321 views

### The rationale to improve MTZ?

Currently I need to solve a quite specific problem involving symmetric TSP as a sub-problem (i.e., a Hamiltonian cycle is a necessary condition for optimizing some problem-specific variables that ...
446 views

### What is the “big-M” method? And are there two of them?

I’ve seen the "big-$M$ method" referred to in different ways. What is the "big-$M$ method" and why does it seem to mean two different things?
741 views

### When should I use dual Simplex over primal Simplex?

In Gurobi the user can change the method parameter in order to force Gurobi to use a particular method for solving MIPs. The user can, amongst others, choose ...
433 views

### How to handle an IP sub-problem with an objective function in Benders Decomposition

I have a question on Benders Decomposition (BD). Suppose I have an MILP model which can be decomposed into a master problem (MP) including integer and continuous variables and a subproblem (SP) ...
772 views

### How to model a mixed-integer linear programming formulation in Python using Gurobi?

I can remember that I spent some time in understanding how to formulate my first model. So I aimed at presenting a complete model here, wishing to save some time for students or researchers needing it....
323 views

### How can I identify the reason that makes a MILP model hard for solvers such as CPLEX?

I'm solving a MILP model whose native lower bound (via linear relaxation) is very poor. We could provide a lower bound by providing a given value (derived based on the problem itself). I know that ...
3k views

### How to evaluate the performance of open source solver?

I am looking for a reliable open source solver to solve LP and MILP (with a few thousand variables). How can I evaluate the performance of a given solver for a particular use case?
211 views

### The effect of choosing big M properly

I have a set of linearized constraints that are modelled using big-Ms. Now, it is, of course, common knowledge to make the value of M and small as possible in order to provide tighter LP relaxations ...
294 views

### Application of complex numbers in Linear Programming?

The theory surrounding Linear Programming is based on variables, bounds and coefficients that take on values in $\mathbb R$, the set of real numbers. I have long wondered whether there might be ...
149 views

### Is there a known MILP to schedule routes after routes are made

I am trying to create a mixed integer model that has as an objective to schedule routes for a single vehicle within its timeline. Let me try to elaborate. Let's say we have a single vehicle vrp and ...
106 views

### Has the expressibility of 'non-integrality testing' as extension to MILP been studied before?

It turns out that extending MILP with any of the constraints $y=\lfloor x\rfloor$, $y=\lceil x\rceil$, $0 < x$, or $x\notin \mathbb{Z}$ is 'equally hard'. (see my answer here, and below) ...
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### What do solvers like Gurobi and CPLEX do when they run into hard instances of MIP?

MIP is NP-Hard, so it is possible that an instance is very difficult and has multiple local minima that the search can get stuck in. With a Metaheuristic Algorithm, the stochastic and approximate ...
528 views

### Modelling an if-then-else logic in MIP

I was hoping to get some help in modelling the following logic as an MIP Constraint If $X_{ij}=1$ and $\text{SDV}_{ikj}=1$ for a particular index $i$, then $\text{SOC}^L_i=100$, else $\text{SOC}^L_i$...
260 views

### Check which constraints are violated (Concert - Cplex Studio 12.10 - C++)

Currently, I am working on the implementation of a formulation for an optimization problem, at the moment I already have the MIP formulation implemented in C++ using Cplex studio 12.10 with the ...
322 views

### Java source code for branch and price

Is there any Java source code (or framework) to implement and solve MILP using the branch and price method? AFAIK, jORLib is a framework to implement B&P using Java, but it does not have any ...
384 views

### Where can I find resources to learn mathematical modelling for real life operation research problems like combinatorial optimization?

I find it hard to form math models for real life operations research problems, how can I learn this? Any books, tutorials available?
287 views

### Tightness of an LP relaxation without using objective function

How can we measure the tightness of a linear programming relaxation for a mixed integer linear program without using the objective value? I would like to get a measure in terms of the feasible set and ...
335 views

### Working with absolute values in constraint in a LP or MILP

Having all the approaches explained in the blog called "OR in an OB World" (this address) in my mind, I would like to ask the following question: What is the best practice to make a constraint linear ...
644 views

### Can presolve reductions change the value of the linear programming relaxation?

For integer programs solvers (like Gurobi, Cplex, ...) report the value of the linear programming relaxation for integer programs, i.e. ...
357 views

### Dealing with non-overlapping constraints

Let us consider the following problem: Let $T$ be a set of tasks. Each task $t \in T$ has a duration $d_t$ and a target start time $s_t$. No two tasks can be executed in parallel. The objective is to ...
377 views

### How could we simplify solving the large scale MIPs without using any advanced methods like decompositions?

Many practical optimization models (specially MIPs) are NP-Hard and solving them need much time even with the modern solvers like CPLEX or GUROBI. One of the best way (but not easy) is using ...
128 views

### Bounding arrival time at a node in a resource-constrained shortest path problem

Given a city map (a graph) $G$, $b_{i,j}$ is a Boolean variable for whether or not edge $i$,$j$ is allocated, $d_{i,j}$ denotes the distance between $i$,$j$. The objective is to move from $s$ to $e$ ...
846 views

### Complexity of LP and MILP Problems?

My original problem is an MILP. I make it an LP by relaxing the integer variables. Can someone please comment on the complexity, solvability and optimality of MILP and LP problems, in general? Is ...
407 views

### Is there a greedy heuristic approach to the MILP problem?

I have the following optimization problem which is an MILP. I can solve it with an MILP solver. \begin{alignat}{1}\max_{x_n,t}\,&\quad t\quad\\\text{s.t.}&\quad\sum_{n=1}^{N} x_n \,&= M\\...
569 views

### Finding an Objective Function for Assigning Employees to Sequence Dates

I am using a mixed-integer-program to schedule employees to projects. These projects can have a time window to get completed from a few weeks to a few months. At the moment I am working in a ...
I have an element e $\in E$ with $E$ the set containing all elements e and $e \in Y_i$ with $Y_i \subseteq E$. Each set $Y_i$ has different attributes. $G_j$ is a set of sets and the following holds: \$...