Questions tagged [constraint]

For questions related to constraints, i.e. any restriction or relation a set of decision variables has to satisfy.

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25
votes
3answers
5k views

In an integer program, how I can force a binary variable to equal 1 if some condition holds?

Suppose we have a binary or continuous variable $x$, a binary variable $y$, and a constant $b$, and we want to enforce a relationship like If $x \gtreqless b$, then $y = 1$. How can we write this ...
23
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3answers
3k views

What is the difference between integer programming and constraint programming?

At first glance both approaches appear to be very similar. What are the major differences between integer programming and constraint programming?
22
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4answers
2k views

Linearize or approximate a square root constraint

I encounter a nonlinear constraint that contains the square root of a sum of integer variables. Of course one could use nonlinear solvers and techniques; but I like linear programming. Are there any ...
16
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2answers
241 views

Is the Irreducible Infeasible Subset (IIS) of an LP unique?

The IIS is a standard part of most modern solvers, but is it unique for an LP? My intuition tells me that it should be, but I could find any proof.
16
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2answers
810 views

Divisibility constraints in integer programming

In the study of a certain pure mathematical problem (related to infinite-dimensional Lie algebras) I found myself in a situation where it would be very desirable to be able to solve an integer ...
16
votes
1answer
480 views

Working with absolute values in constraint in a LP or MILP

Having all the approaches explained in the blog called "OR in an OB World" (this address) in my mind, I would like to ask the following question: What is the best practice to make a constraint linear ...
16
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2answers
234 views

Can we replace a binary variable with a continuous variable using a quadratic equality constraint?

Is it possible to replace a binary variable $x$ with a continuous variable that satisfies the quadratic equality constraint $x^2 - x=0$? The function $f(x) = x^2 -x$ is not a convex function. Can ...
14
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1answer
2k views

How to formulate (linearize) a maximum function in a constraint?

How to formulate (linearize) a maximum function in a constraint? Suppose $C = \max \{c_1, c_2\}$, where both $c_1$ and $c_2$ are variables. If the objective function is minimizing $C$, then it can be ...
13
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2answers
1k views

Is This Constraint Convex?

I have a constraint that I believe to be convex and not affine which I think means that I can implement a relaxation. I will first define the full constraint, and then build up my (informal) reasoning ...
12
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3answers
1k views

Does it make sense to use strict equality constraints in optimization?

Once I learned from some post that the strict equality constraint in an optimization problem does not make much sense. We should always use $\le$ constraint. How much truth is in this? If I must have ...
12
votes
1answer
701 views

Difference between lazy callbacks and using lazy constraints directly

I'm trying to use lazy constraints to solve an optimization problem. In some software such as CPLEX or GUROBI, they have some tools to handle them directly (in the original model) or using callback ...
12
votes
1answer
530 views

Which ML algorithms work by solving constrained optimisation problems?

As far as I know, most machine learning algorithms solve unconstrained optimisation problems, i.e., if we were to unroll all the neurons into symbolic expressions we would end up with a massive ...
12
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1answer
2k views

If-then constraints in MIP programming

For continuous variables $x$ and $y$, the constraints are: ...
12
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1answer
287 views

Simplest way to eliminate redundant constraints due to a new cut

I have a polyhedral set for constraining $x$: \begin{align} \mathcal{P} = \{x \in \mathbb{R}^n_{+} : \ Dx \leq d \} \end{align} where $D \in \mathbb{R}^{m \times n}, d \in \mathbb{R}^m$. I find the ...
12
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1answer
221 views

2 stage stochastic programming to approximate many stage problems

There are many naturally multi-stage (i.e., more than two) stochastic programming problems that are approximated by a two-stage stochastic programming model due to the complete intractability of the '...
11
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3answers
5k views

Soft constraints and hard constraints

The terms "soft constraints" and "hard constraints" are used in the context of optimization modeling. Is there any standard way to figure out which is which in some of the complicated models?
11
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3answers
346 views

How to handle real-world (soft) constraints in an optimization problem?

Cross-posted at Stats.SE (aka Cross Validated) I am working on a problem which involves optimizing for minimum power consumption in a large compressor network interconnected through pipelines (think ...
11
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2answers
961 views

In an integer program, how can I “activate” a constraint only if a decision variable has a certain value?

Suppose we have the constraint $$a_1x_1 + \cdots + a_nx_n \gtreqless b,$$ where $a_i$ and $b$ are constants and $x_i$ are decision variables. Suppose also that we want the constraint to hold if $y=1$ (...
11
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3answers
294 views

Is my approach to my internship project good? Optimal allocation of product across stores, constrained optimization

Context: I am a CS student currently in a non-CS internship (logistics, supply chain). My manager wants to leverage my knowledge of programming to build a program to solve the following problem: As ...
11
votes
2answers
217 views

Fast validation of time windows in a routing problem

When solving a routing problem with time windows, unless you go for the arc-based math program that describes it, you have to check time windows "manually." For example, generating routes with any ...
11
votes
1answer
537 views

Change coefficient in PuLP

Once a model is implemented in PuLP, how do you change a coefficient (e.g., $a_{ij}$, $b_i$ or $c_j$) of a program of the from $\min\{c^{\top}x: Ax=b, x\geq0\}$? Specifically: How to update ...
11
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1answer
204 views

Example satisfying Mangasarian-Fromovitz CQ but not LICQ

On Wikipedia's page for the KKT conditions, it is stated that Mangasarian-Fromovitz constraint qualification (MFCQ) is weaker than linear independent constraint qualification (LICQ). What is a ...
10
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4answers
200 views

Is there a canonical name for Score Folding (multiplying a priority soft constraint by a big weight)?

I've regularly encountered that there are too many constraints to categorize into just hard and soft constraints. For example: Physical constraints (very hard), e.g. 1 person can only be at 1 spot ...
10
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2answers
201 views

Linearization $\max(c_1 x_2, c_2 x_2, \ldots, c_nx_n) \geq q$ constraint

I have a MIP minimization problem where I have a maximization in the constraints: $$\max(c_1x_2,\, c_2x_2,\, \ldots,\, c_nx_n) \geq q$$ Where: $c_n$ constants $x_n$ binary variables $q$ constant $...
10
votes
2answers
412 views

What is the standard practice in Constraint Programming modeling?

I know some general concepts regarding Constraint Programming (e.g., the ones explained in this answer). I am interested in learning how to formulate a combinatorial optimisation problem as a ...
10
votes
1answer
474 views

Linear programming with if-then-else (big-M)

I am trying to formulate the following in linear programming. \begin{cases}\text{if}\,\,a>b\,\,\text{then}\,\,c=a\\\text{else}\,\,c=b.\end{cases} I tried some things with big $M$, like $$a + my &...
9
votes
3answers
464 views

Is there a better way to formulate this constraint?

Let $x_{r}^{j}=1\iff$ the machine schedules job $j$ using resource $r$. My constraint says that: a resource cannot be used twice, i.e., if $x_{r}^{j}=1$, then $x_{r}^{j'}=0$ for $j'\neq j$. I write ...
9
votes
2answers
237 views

Common structures in Gurobi - Python

I'm new to Gurobi in Python and I was wondering if someone knows how to code some common structures of linear constraints. I'm trying to understand how you'll code something like the following ...
9
votes
1answer
111 views

Constraint to state the relation between 2 binary variables

I'm trying to deal with a process planning and machine layout allocation simultaneously. I have the following variables: $X_p{_w}_{cj}=1$ if an operation $p$ is done by a machine $w$ with a ...
9
votes
1answer
162 views

Static stochastic knapsack problem: unbounded version

In the static stochastic knapsack problem (SSKP) the weights $w_i$ of the items are distributed according to a probability distribution. Each item $i \in I$ can be selected at most once. So, ...
8
votes
3answers
630 views

Bin packing variant

I am currently struggling with a bin packing variant, where we have fuel and compartments of a tank truck. Some industry constraints apply, but the whole picture is that you must fit the total volume ...
8
votes
3answers
200 views

Difference between “Optimization” and “Constrained Optimization”?

(Another OR noob question) As I'm trying to learn about OR and Optimization methods for work, I'm having a hard time understanding the difference between "Optimization" and "Constrained Optimization"...
8
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1answer
429 views

Adding a constraint in constraint programming

Is it true that the more we add constraint to a constraint programming solver the more efficient it will be? How does this compare to adding constraints in integer programming solvers.
8
votes
2answers
2k views

How to linearize a constraint with max

I would like to linearize a constraint with max. I have the following constraint: $$\max_{pcj}X_{pwcj}\leqslant L_{wk}.$$ With this constraint, I would like to ensure that for $\forall w \in W$, no ...
8
votes
1answer
225 views

Minizinc: How to use a predicate in an assert statement?

Trying to use minizinc builtins to do some basic validation of data inputs but I get a type error ...
8
votes
1answer
106 views

How to model 24 hours demand into a daily shift schedule?

I am working on a weekly staff scheduling optimization problem with 24/7 demand. The binary decision variable is: $X_{\text{staff},\,\text{day},\,\text{shift}}$ whether to assign the staff $s$ to day ...
7
votes
2answers
162 views

Index of element in MILP vector decision variable that equals 1

Consider a decision variable in a MILP constrained: $$\sum_i p_i = 1$$ $$p_i\ \in \{0, 1\}$$ Obviously one element in $p$ is 1 and all others are 0. How can I set a decision variable to the index i of ...
7
votes
1answer
369 views

KKT inequality conditions

Let's say I have an objective function $$f(x_1,x_2, \cdots, x_n)$$ and $N$ constraints $$x_i \ge 0. $$ I am trying to solve it with KKT conditions. Now the objective function becomes $$f(x_1,x_2,...
7
votes
1answer
781 views

How to find the idle intervals in integer programming?

I have a scheduling problem with one machine and one job. I defined a binary variable $z_t$ that is 1 iff the job is scheduled at time $t$ (the job can be served in multiple times that are not ...
7
votes
2answers
316 views

shadow prices associated with nonnegativity constraints

Why are shadow prices associated with nonnegativity constraints also called as reduced costs, even if they have the same interpretation as shadow prices associated with an optimal solution? Why the ...
7
votes
2answers
154 views

Linear constraint formulation (OR-statement)

I have the decision variable $X_{iz}$ And I have two parameters $T_i\in\{0,1\}$ and $IT_z\in\{0,1,2\}$. I can only assign $i$ to $z$ if the following holds: for $T_i=0$, $IT_z$ needs to be $0$ or $2$...
7
votes
2answers
441 views

The general meaning of “constraint relaxation” in the context of the Shortest Path Problem

I've read that in the context of the Shortest Path Problem, the use of the term "relaxation" ("relaxing edges") [...][the use of the term "relaxation"] is historical. The outcome of a relaxation ...
6
votes
1answer
132 views

Two equivalent soft constraint implementations

Take the following optimization problem: \begin{align}\min_x&\quad f(x)\\\text{s.t.}&\quad g(x)\le0\end{align} with $f$ and $g$ nonlinear functions. Suppose I want to relax the constraint by ...
6
votes
2answers
213 views

How can this be expressed as a MILP constraint?

I am looking for a constraint to express the following: IF W1 = 0 AND W2 = 0 THEN Y = 1 IF W1 = 0 AND W2 = 1 THEN Y = 1 IF W1 = 1 AND W2 = 0 THEN Y = 0 IF W1 = 1 AND W2 = 1 THEN Y <= 1 ...
6
votes
1answer
196 views

How To Linearize $X = \max\{x_1,x_2\}$

I am new to thinking about math programming and I have a particular constraint I am hoping to reformulate, I just don't know the proper mathematical translation for what I am hoping to do. Enforcing ...
6
votes
1answer
65 views

Optimal resource allocation - 3 step process

I have a 3 step process. Step A takes 20 min, Step B : 60 min, Step C : 20 min Steps in production of output "news nuggets" is as below: Step A : Do Secondary Research Step B : Analyse the data, ...
5
votes
2answers
917 views

Integer programming problem

I have the following exercise: Stockco is considering four investments. Investment 1 will yield a net present value (NPV) of \$16,000; investment 2, an NPV of \$22,000; investment 3, an NPV of \$12,...
5
votes
1answer
208 views

How to set a limit for a switch to 0 of a variable for 2 variables combined

I have a follow up question to another question of mine How to set a limit for a switch to 0 of a variable about counting the number of switches to 0 of one decision variable. Now I would like to ask ...
5
votes
1answer
82 views

if $x = 0$ then $y \ne b$

I'm trying to model the following: if $x=0$ then $y \ne b$ $y$ is a positive integer number( $y\le U$) and $x$ is binary and $b$ is a constant.
5
votes
2answers
320 views

Failing to meet a constraint in a NLP problem

I have a NLP problem at hand, which I am trying to solve via Pyomo + ipopt. I try to run several different instances of the optimizer with different conditions, out ...