Questions tagged [big-m]

For questions related to the use of a "big M" (large constant) in a mathematical modeling context, either in the objective function (to initialize the simplex method) or in constraints (to formulate logical constraints, to linearize constraints, and so on).

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98 views

Modeling the product of two variables

Suppose we have two continuous nonnegative variables $X_{1}$ and $X_{2}$ both bounded by the number $M$ from above. I would like to model the following: If $X_{1} > 0$ then $X_{2} = 0$ If $X_{2} &...
-3
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0answers
37 views

If-else statement in cvx

I have a problem with if-else statement in cvx which causes error. I raised this issue in cvx forum and was highly recommended to ask for assistance in this community. Could you please help to fix it ...
2
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1answer
114 views

If-Then-Else modeling in MILP using the Big M method

I have trouble finding a solution to the following problem. I have a decision variable $x$. If the value of $x$ is between 0 and a constant $A$, then the binary variable $y_1$ must be equal to 1. If $...
4
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2answers
89 views

Benders subproblem with product of continuous and discrete variables

I am trying to solve the following problem. The decisions in the problem are $x, y, v, $ and $W$, where $x, y$ are binary and $v, W$ are continuous variables. \begin{equation}\label{eq:3} \begin{...
4
votes
1answer
77 views

how to apply Big M to model the logic constraint (if-then-else)

I was hoping to get some help in modelling the following logic as an MIP Constraint c_{m,l}^{RC} is binary decision variable. Simplify it:
4
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2answers
134 views

Formulating the conditional constraint

I want to develop a model extension of capacitated location problem. The variables are a binary $x_i$ and a continuous $Q_i$. The following condition must be satisfied: if $x_i = 0$, $Q_i$ must be ...
2
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1answer
101 views

Scenario based approach to value-at-risk optimization using mixed-integer programming

For a discrete set of scenarios, minimising value at risk can be formulated as a mixed integer linear programming problem. If each scenario has equal probability then this can be written as \begin{...
1
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0answers
41 views

Linearize max function in a constraint [duplicate]

I have a constraint as follows: $ \sum_i {r_i} \geq \max \{g_j, B_j\} $ where, $r_i$, $g_j$ are variables and $B_j$ is a parameter. How do I linearize the constraint (I suppose using big-M method)?...
3
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1answer
104 views

How to transform these conditional constraints to linear integer ones in a more efficient way?

The conditional constraints A and B can be transformed to a set of linear integer constraints as follows: A) $\text{if} \ x_1=0 \ \text{then} \ d_1=1 \ \text{else} \ d_1= 0\\ x_1\in {\rm I\!R}^{\geq ...
3
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1answer
144 views

How to fomulate the following conditional constraint in MILP?

How can I formulate the following conditional constraint to a linear constraint using indicator variables? Please note that all variables are continuous and $c \ge 0$ $\text{1: if} \ c=0 \ \& \ ...
1
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3answers
205 views

Using big M values for a constraint

I want to enforce $x_{i,j}=x_{k,j}\implies z_i \neq z_k$ where $k = i-1$ so I used \begin{align}z_k + 1 - (x_{i,j} - x_{k,j})) \leq z_i \leq z_k - 1 - (x_{i,j} - x_{k,j})\quad\text{for each $j$}\end{...
6
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2answers
111 views

How to handle bigM in sub-problem of benders decomposition?

Suppose you want to solve a MIP with Benders decomposition and the binary variables ($y_i$) are fixed in the master problem but these variables are used in the sub-problem with bigM like $x_{ij} \le M....
3
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2answers
259 views

Mocking up conditional statements in LP

I would like to know how if condition statements in linear programming can be reformulated using indicator constraints, and hence solved as a mixed integer linear program. Specifically: 1. Is it ...
5
votes
2answers
155 views

Linearizing objective function with variables inside an indicator function

I am working on a problem in which I am trying to maximize the average of a variable only for the data that meet a certain condition with a constraint on the number of data that meet this condition. I ...
6
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2answers
2k views

IF X = 0 THEN Y = 1, IF X > 0 THEN Y => 0

I'm trying to model the following IF $tS = 0$ THEN $Y = 1$, IF $tS \gt 0$ THEN $Y \ge 0$ $tS$ is a positive real number and $Y$ is binary. I tried the following: $tS - \epsilon \ge -M Y$ but ...
5
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1answer
148 views

Converting if else condition to MIP constraints - validation

I have an if else condition as follows: If $g \ge 0$ then $e=1$, else $e=b$. I formulated MIP constraints using big-M as follows where I am setting $\delta=1$ if $g \ge 0$: \begin{alignat}2g &\...
8
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1answer
309 views

if-else condition for the objective variable using big M notation

Let $0\leq \beta\leq 1$ be an objective variable. The size of $\beta$ is $N\!\times\!N$. Now, how can I impose the following? if $\beta_{i,j}>0$ then $\beta_{j,i}=0$ Big M notation can be ...
11
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2answers
999 views

Linear programming: objective function with “buckets”

I had a linear programming problem with the following objective function $$f(x) = \sum_{j}x_jq_jp_j - \sum_{i}\left(\sum_{j}x_jq_jC_{ij} \right) c_i$$ Where $q, p, C, c$ are known. This problem was ...
3
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1answer
42 views

defining Mixed integer linear inequalities for a set of variables

The problem is described as follows: considering $n$ variables which are continuous and bounded such that $$L_i \le x_i \le U_i\quad \forall i=1,2,\dots,n.$$ How can i define a set of mixed integer ...
5
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2answers
264 views

How to model If $A \le B$ then $Y = 1$, otherwise $Y = 0$

Somehow I don't get it right. I would like to model the following conditional: If $A\le B$ then $Y=1$ otherwise $Y=0$ where $A, B$ are reals and $Y$ is binary. I can model as follows: $Y \cdot A \le B$...
3
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2answers
255 views

Problem with big-M in CPLEX OPL

I have a model for the no-wait flow shop scheduling problem, that utilizes the linear ordering variables, and there is a constraint with big-M. When I implement the model in ...
5
votes
1answer
274 views

How is Big M calculated?

Because of excessive pollution on the Momiss River, the state of Momiss is going to build pollution control stations. Three sites (1, 2, and 3) are under consideration. Momiss is interested in ...
9
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1answer
108 views

Introducing a big M variable in given equations

While I do understand the general workings of the Big-M-method I am struggling with the following sample exercise, in which the Big-M-method has to be used to find a first feasible solution: \begin{...
5
votes
1answer
178 views

Integer programming example clarification

There is an explanation in my book for an integer programming example, which goes like this: A company is considering manufacturing three types of autos: compact, midsize, and large. The resources ...
10
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1answer
344 views

Linear programming with if-then-else (big-M)

I am trying to formulate the following in linear programming. \begin{cases}\text{if}\,\,a>b\,\,\text{then}\,\,c=a\\\text{else}\,\,c=b.\end{cases} I tried some things with big $M$, like $$a + my &...
7
votes
1answer
211 views

Logical Constraints Modelling using Big-M formulation

I am trying to model some logical constraints in ILOG. Logical constraints could be given such as: Constraint 1 or Constraint 2, Constraint 3 or Constraint 4, Constraint 5 or Constraint 6. The ...
4
votes
0answers
63 views

If and then constraint for a special case [duplicate]

I have the following constraint: $$f\geq C_1\left(d-z-E_1-E_2\right)+C_2\left(E_1+E_2\right).$$ Here $f, d,z\in \mathbb{R}_{\geq 0}$ and $y\in \{0,1\}$ are variables and $C_1$, $C_2$, $E_1$, and $E_2$...
21
votes
2answers
1k views

Why is it important to choose big-M carefully and what are the consequences of doing it badly?

The question here discusses the two different use of "big-M method", where one of them is the big-M in logical constraints and linearization in (mixed-)integer programming problems (that's what I'm ...
16
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5answers
3k views

When to use indicator constraints versus big-M approaches in solving (mixed-)integer programs

Various optimization modeling languages and solvers allow for both indicator constraints (see for example here, here and here) and traditional binary variable and big-M approaches can be used to model ...
16
votes
1answer
473 views

What is the “big-M” method? And are there two of them?

I’ve seen the "big-$M$ method" referred to in different ways. What is the "big-$M$ method" and why does it seem to mean two different things?
13
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4answers
211 views

The effect of choosing big M properly

I have a set of linearized constraints that are modelled using big-Ms. Now, it is, of course, common knowledge to make the value of M and small as possible in order to provide tighter LP relaxations ...
12
votes
4answers
688 views

Single reference for Mixed Integer Programming formulations to linearize, handle logical constraints and disjunctive constraints, do Big M, etc?

Is there a single crisp and accessible reference which covers how to generate Mixed Integer Programming formulations to linearize products, handle logical constraints and disjunctive constraints, do ...