I am formulating a MILP in which there is a continuous variable x and a binary variable $y$.

In the program formulation there are the following constraints: $Ay\leq x \leq By$ (with $0\leq A\leq B$). The idea is that $y=0$ if and only if $x=0$ and $y=1$ if and only if $x>0$ (this is used in other constraints).

However it may happen that $A=0$, in which case $y$ is not constrained to be $0$ when $x=0$. I've thus reformulated the left-hand-side constraint as $Ay\leq x$ if $A > 0$ and $0.1y\leq x$ otherwise. The $0.1$ factor is however arbitrary and has been chosen because in implementations it produced better results than other candidates (such as $10^{-2}$ and lower).

Still I'm afraid that this factor might depend on the scale of other parameters in the program, and I wondered whether there is a more robust way to implement $(x=0) \Rightarrow (y=0)$.

  • $\begingroup$ I think that there is a little error in your third sentence. It should be $y=1$ if and only if $x=0$. Can you please check that? $\endgroup$
    – PeterD
    Mar 22 at 13:51
  • $\begingroup$ @Pedrinho if $y=1$ then $Ay\leq x$ implies $x>0$, and on the contrary if $x\leq By$ then $x>0$ implies $y=1$. So its $y=1$ if and only if $x=1$ $\endgroup$
    – Meth
    Mar 22 at 13:53

1 Answer 1


Equivalently, you want to enforce the contrapositive $y = 1 \implies x > 0$. The standard approach is to introduce a small constant tolerance $\epsilon > 0$ and enforce $y = 1 \implies x \ge \epsilon$ via big-M constraint $$\epsilon - x \le M(1-y).$$ With $M = \epsilon - 0$, the constraint reduces to $\epsilon y \le x$, as you had obtained. Alternatively, you can use an indicator constraint, but you will still need $\epsilon$.

  • $\begingroup$ I don't understand the role of $M$ here, since $x$ in nonnegative. $M=1$ yields $y\leq x + 1-\epsilon$ with also yields $x=0 \Rightarrow y=0$. Might question would be why is $y\leq x + 1-\epsilon$ better than $\epsilon y \leq x$ ? $\endgroup$
    – Meth
    Mar 22 at 15:04
  • $\begingroup$ PS: Numerical simulations also seem to be sensitive to the choice of $\epsilon$ for this additive formulation constraint, $0.1$ and $0.01$ seem to produce the desirable outcome but not $0.001$. $\endgroup$
    – Meth
    Mar 22 at 15:22
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ The choice of $\epsilon$ in Rob's formulation is indeed subject to what else is going on in the model (so, as you put it, dependent on other parameters), and sadly that is largely unavoidable. $\endgroup$
    – prubin
    Mar 22 at 16:03
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ Smaller $M$ is better. You want it to be an upper bound on the LHS when $y=0$. Because $0$ is a lower bound on $x$, take $M=\epsilon-0=\epsilon$. $\endgroup$
    – RobPratt
    Mar 22 at 16:09
  • $\begingroup$ Okay so your answer is that my initial formulation was correct? Sorry I got confused. $\endgroup$
    – Meth
    Mar 22 at 17:21

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