Suppose I have a linear program (LP) that has many optimal solutions. Of those optima, I want to find the optimum that activates (aka, "pegs" or "bumps") the largest number of constraints. Is there a general mechanism to achieve this?

I was able to achieve what I wanted via MIP by duplicating the constraints and adding a binary variable for each of the duplicates -- an "enabler". I then maximize the sum of those. It gives very good results. However, this takes my 30ms LP to two minutes of processing (using Gurobi), and that's not an acceptable delay.


2 Answers 2


Suppose your problem is of the form $\min c^Tx$ subject to $Ax+e =b$, where $e$ denotes the slack variables.

You could proceed in two steps.

  1. Solve the initial LP. Let $z^*$ be the value of the optimal solution.
  2. Solve the initial LP with the following modifications: add the constraint that the objective function must equal $z^*$ ($c^Tx = z^*$), and instead minimize the sum of the slack variables ($\mathbb{1}^Te$), or perhaps the largest slack variable ($\max_i \{e_i\}$).

Maybe it is also worth trying to directly minimize the slack variables along with $c^Tx$, but this might degrade the objective function value: $$ \min c^T x + w^Te $$ $$ \mbox{subject to } Ax+e = b $$ You will have to tweak $w$.

  • 7
    $\begingroup$ Just to clarify, minimizing the sum (or maximum) of slacks might not yield the maximum number of 0 slacks, so this is an approximation. $\endgroup$
    – RobPratt
    Commented Feb 18, 2022 at 18:19
  • 2
    $\begingroup$ Further to @Rob Pratt 's comments, paragraph 2 minimizes total slackness, not number of slack constraints. So basically, .minimizing the convex $L^1$ norm as a proxy to the non-convex $L^0$ "norm". Maybe that's good enough for what the OP really cares about? $\endgroup$ Commented Feb 18, 2022 at 19:16
  • $\begingroup$ Yes, good point, I guess the OP would have to specify if he prefers having $1$ active constraint, or $2$ "nearly" active. $\endgroup$
    – Kuifje
    Commented Feb 18, 2022 at 19:27
  • $\begingroup$ In my small experiments I just ran, manually adding the slack sum to the minimizer does help quit a bit; it's about 4x better than letting the slacks float. The MIP approach is 8x better. It makes me wonder about doing something slightly more complex than an LP; maybe an $e^2$ would be interesting, or maybe some of these optimization tools do support an $L^0$ norm, or maybe there is some way to maximize variance. $\endgroup$
    – Brannon
    Commented Feb 18, 2022 at 19:51

Finding all optima of a linear program can be NP-annoying, so finding the optimum with the most binding constraints is likely also NP-annoying.

The multiple optima will be vertices of a facet of the feasible region, so you can explore them by sliding along edges of the optimal facet. A heuristic approach would be as follows. First, solve the LP. Find a nonbasic variable whose reduced cost is 0 and pivot it into the basis, taking you to another vertex. Keep track of each basis visited (you just need to record a boolean vector indicating which variables are basic or the list of basic variables; you don't need to record variable values) and if you wind up at a vertex already visited, don't pick the same nonbasic variable for the next pivot (to avoid looping). Repeat until you can't find a new pivot to make or you run out of time. Obviously, at each vertex you'll count active constraints and retain as incumbent the vertex with the most active constraints.

A slightly more sophisticated approach might use something like tabu search to avoid getting stuck in one area of the optimal facet.


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