# If-then condition formulation to avoid variable multiplication

I'm trying to formulate the following logic:
If $$y_i =1$$, then $$c_i \leq x_i$$
If $$y_i =0$$, then $$c_i \leq 0$$
Where $$y_i$$, $$c_i$$, and $$x_i$$ are decision variables.

The easy way would be to write: $$c_i \leq x_i y_i$$ But that is a quadratic formulation. I was wondering if there is a way to write the constraint as a linear one.

Consider that $$c_i$$, $$x_i$$ $$\geq 0$$ and $$y_i \in \{0,1\}$$.

Something like: \begin{align} & c_i \le x_i + M(1-y_i)\\ & c_i \le My_i \end{align} $$M$$ can be interpreted as an upperbound on $$c_i$$. If you don't like the big-$$M$$'s, consider using indicator constraints.
• Erwin knows this, but a best practice is to use $M_i$ (a possibly different value for each $c_i$). Jan 12, 2022 at 19:59
• And may be even a different $M_i$ for the two constraints (if we know something about the difference between $c_i$ and $x_i$). Jan 12, 2022 at 20:15
• Since $x_i\ge 0$, the first constraint can be simplified to $c_i \le x_i$.
• Indeed, Paul's improvement arises from interpreting the first $M$ as a (small) upper bound on $c_i-x_i$ when $y_i=0$. Because $c_i=0$ in that case, we have $c_i-x_i = -x_i \le 0$, so take $M=0$. Jan 12, 2022 at 21:22