Consider the binary variables $x, y, z \in \{0,1\}$.

I'd like to formulate the two if-then constraints:

$$ x + y \geq 2 \implies z = 0, \tag{1} $$ $$ x + y \leq 1 \implies z = 1. \tag{2} $$

Constraint (1) can be formulated as

$$ x + y \leq 2 - z. $$

How to proceed for (2) ?


2 Answers 2


Indeed, for the first constraint you can use: $$ x+y+z \le 2 $$

For the second one, it might be easier to model the contraposition: $$ z=0 \quad \Rightarrow \quad x+y \ge 2 \quad \Rightarrow \quad x=y=1 $$

This yields: $$ 1-z \le x \\ 1-z \le y $$


You want to linearize $xy=1-z$. See https://or.stackexchange.com/a/473/500 for a somewhat automatic derivation of a linearization for $xy=z$ via conjunctive normal form. You can then replace $z$ with $1-z$ in the resulting constraints.


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