I'm trying to implement either one of these objective functions, but I'm having a hard time with the squared terms. I'm attaching both so you can take a look at the structure and see if you can give me any tips. Is there any way to implement either one of them?

1- Matrix notation:

enter image description here

$x$: decision variable

$1$: column of ones

$k$: squared matrix

2- Summation notation:

enter image description here

$x$: decision variable $m$: degree of the node i $rho$: parameter that takes into account the influence of the neighbors that surround node i $a$: terms of the adjacency matrix. Shows if nodes i and j are connected

Thank you in advance!

  • $\begingroup$ Hello and welcome to OR.SE. What are the $a_{il}$s and $m_i$s? $\endgroup$ Jul 10, 2020 at 19:18
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    $\begingroup$ Actually it would be good if you could explain all the notations... $\endgroup$ Jul 10, 2020 at 19:28
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    $\begingroup$ In what way are you having a hard time? Is the question how to code squared terms with either CPLEX or Gurobi (in which case you should specify what API you are using)? $\endgroup$
    – prubin
    Jul 10, 2020 at 20:26
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    $\begingroup$ @OguzToragay thank you for reaching out! I will edit the post with all the notations. $\endgroup$ Jul 12, 2020 at 0:58
  • $\begingroup$ @prubin thanks for reaching out! yes, my problem is I don't know how to implement the second term of the objective function in the matrix notation since the term is squared. On the other hand, I tried implementing the second equation of the post, but I run into a memory error. I'm using Gurobi with Python. $\endgroup$ Jul 12, 2020 at 1:05

1 Answer 1


It's relatively easy to write $(1^{T}Kx)^{2}$ in standard quadratic form.

Since $1^{T}Kx$ is a scalar,


Using the cyclic property of the trace of a product of matrices,


Unfortunately, $K^{T}11^{T}K$ will be dense, so if $x$ is large you'll probably run out of storage.


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