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I have been trying to implement a variant of LNS on a graph for TSP. One of the ways that I can define a neighborhood for TSP is to find $k$-shortest path between two nodes. But the choice of these nodes are random. I have two questions:

  1. Are there better ways to define neighborhood?
  2. Is there a way to find a promising neighborhood?
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This paper by Pisinger and Ropke is particularly useful when working on (A)LNS, and provides great guidance and an overview of operators/neighborhoods. I would suggest this paper by Vidal et al. for more genetic search inspired aspects.

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These common neighborhoods for TSP/VRP might be useful:

  • 2-opt, 3-opt, ..., k-opt
  • change 1 visit: remove 1 visit from a chain and insert it somewhere else in a chain
  • swap 2 visits
  • change a subchain of visits: remove a number of sequential visits from a chain and insert it somewhere else in a chain, sometimes reversed
  • swap 2 subchains
  • ruin&recreate
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